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Chemistry & BiochemistryInstrumentation

For Teaching & Routine Research Applications

In most cases, training and maintenance is provided by the department and the departmental Instrument GTA. In some cases, instruments are for research use only.

Several major instruments reside with specific research groups in the department. This faculty member sets the policy regarding instrument use. Faculty will often let outside researchers use their instruments or run samples on them if this does not interfere with their group's ongoing research. A graduate student interested in using one of these instruments should ask their respective faculty research advisor to contact the faculty in charge.

Teaching & Research Instruments

Atomic Force Microscope/Scanning Tunneling Microscope - VEECO Dimension 3100 (2010)
ALF 106 - Research Only - Dr. Richard Gregory

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. The information is gathered by "feeling" or "touching" the surface with a mechanical probe. Piezoelectric elements that facilitate tiny but accurate and precise movements on (electronic) command enable precise scanning.

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer - Shimadzu 7000 - graphite & flame (2013)
ALF 404 - Instrumental Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper

Atomic absorption spectroscopy is an analytical technique that measures the concentrations of elements. Atomic absorption is so sensitive that it can measure down to parts per billion of a gram in a sample. The technique makes use of the wavelengths of light specifically absorbed by an element.

Circular Dichroism Spectropolarimeter - Jasco J-815-150S (2013) ALF 204A - Research Only - Dr. Steven Pascal

Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique where the CD of molecules is measured over a range of wavelengths. CD spectroscopy is used extensively to study chiral molecules of all types and sizes, but it is in the study of large biological molecules where it finds its most important applications.

Differential Scanning Calorimeter - TA Instruments Q2000 (2008)
ALF 204A - Physical Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. Richard Gregory

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.

Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer - TA Instruments Q800 (2008)
Applied Research Center - Research only - Dr. Richard Gregory

Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a technique used to study and characterize materials. It is most useful for studying the viscoelastic behavior of polymers.

Fluorescence Spectrometer - Thermo Fisher Lumina (2012)
ALF 404 - Instrumental Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper

In fluorescence spectrometry both an excitation spectrum (the light that is absorbed by the sample) and/or an emission spectrum (the light emitted by the sample) can be measured. The concentration of the analyte is directly proportional with the intensity of the emission.

Fluorescence Spectrophotometer - Varian Eclipse (2007)
ALF 204A - Research Only - Dr. Lesley Greene

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) with AIM-8800 - Shimadzu (2007)
ALF 410 - Instrumental Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper

This instrument features a highly optimized, high-energy throughput optical system that results in a S/N ratio of 40,000:1. The instrument also includes an AIM-8800, a completely automated FTIR Microscope system with transmission and reflectance capability.

Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) - Bruker Optics Alpha (2 - 2016) - Dr. John Cooper ALF 410 - Inorganic Chemistry Instructional Lab/Organic Chemistry Lab/Research

Attenuated total reflection (ATR) is a sampling technique used in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy which enables samples to be examined directly in the solid or liquid state without further preparation.

Gas Chromatograph, digital (2) - Shimadzu GC-2014 & GC-2014A (2009)
ALF 410 - Organic Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. Bala Ramjee

Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture.

Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer - Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010SE (2016) ALF 410 - Organic Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. Bala Ramjee

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio. In simpler terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. Mass spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures.

Gel Permeation Chromatography/Size Exclusion Chromatography System - Shimadzu Prominence (2016) ALF 409 - Research Only - Dr. Guijun Wang

Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is a type of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Typically, when an aqueous solution is used to transport the sample through the column, the technique is known as gel-filtration chromatography, versus the name gel permeation chromatography, which is used when an organic solvent is used as a mobile phase.

High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph - Shimadzu (2009)
ALF 106 - Research Only - Dr. Bala Ramjee

Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer - Shimadzu LCMS-2020 (2017) ALF 412 - Research - Dr. John Cooper

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS). Coupled chromatography - MS systems are popular in chemical analysis because the individual capabilities of each technique are enhanced synergistically. While liquid chromatography separates mixtures with multiple components, mass spectrometry provides structural identity of the individual components with high molecular specificity and detection sensitivity.

LC/LC/Mass Spectrometer - Applied Biosystems (2007)
ALF 404 - Instrumental Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper

Magnetic Susceptibility Balance - Johnson Matthey Mark 1 (2011)
ALF 404 - Inorganic Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper

A magnetic susceptibility balance is a device for measuring magnetic susceptibility. Magnetic susceptibility is related to the force experienced by a substance in a magnetic field.

Master Cycler Gradient PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) - eppendorf
ALF 404 - Biochemistry Lab/Research - Dr. Lesley Greene
A thermal cycler is an instrument that employs precise temperature control and rapid temperature changes to conduct the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is used to create billions of copies of a DNA sequence for use in a wide array of downstream procedures including cloning, sequencing, expression analysis, and genotyping.

Microplate Reader - BioTek Synergy HT (2011)
ALF 204A - Research Only - Dr. Greene

A microplate reader is an instrument used to detect biological, chemical or physical events of samples in microtiter plates.

Muffle Furnace, 208v, 5800w - Sybron/Thermolyne

A muffle furnace is a furnace in which the subject material is isolated from the fuel and all of the products of combustion, including gases and flying ash.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer 400MHz - Bruker (2014)
ALF 410 - Organic Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. Bala Ramjee
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. It determines the physical and chemical properties of atoms or the molecules in which they are contained.

Phosphorimager - Molecular Dynamics Storm Model 860 Molecular Imager (GMI refurbished 2017) ALF 204A - Research Only - Dr. Erin Purcell

Gel and blotting imaging system for autoradiography direct fluorescence for nucleic acid and protein gel analysis and chemifluorescence for fast blot analysis. This model uses storage phosphor screens instead of film to deliver high-resolution imaging and accurate quantification of 14C 3H 125I 32P 33P 35S and other sources of ionizing radiation.

Polarimeter, digital - Jasco P-2000 (2013) ALF 410 - Organic Chemistry Instructional Lab - Dr. Bala Ramjee

A polarimeter is a scientific instrument used to measure the angle of rotation caused by passing polarized light through an optically active substance.

Potentiostat/Galvanostat - Stanford Research EC301 (2016) ALF 410 - Instrumental Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper

RAMAN Spectrometer - Thermo Nicolet 960 (2002) ALF 410 - Instrumental Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper

Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a structural fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. It is based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light, usually from a laser source. Inelastic scattering means that the frequency of photons in monochromatic light changes upon interaction with a sample.

RAMAN Spectrometers - Wasatch Photonics f/1.3 high throughput spectrometers - 532nm, 638nm, 785nm, 830nm (2018)

Rheometer - TA Instruments (2008)
Applied Research Center - Research only - Dr. Richard Gregory

A rheometer is a laboratory device used to measure the way in which a liquid, suspension or slurry flows in response to applied forces. It is used for those fluids which cannot be defined by a single value of viscosity and therefore require more parameters to be set and measured than is the case for a viscometer.

Solution Calorimeter - Parr 6755 (2008) - Dr. Richard Gregory ALF 404 -Physical Chemistry Instructional Lab

A calorimeter is a device used to measure heat of reaction.

Stopped Flow Fluorescence & Circular Dichroism system - Molecular Kinetics SFM-400/QS (2007) ALF 204A - Research Only - Dr. Lesley Greene

A stopped-flow instrument is a rapid mixing device used to study the chemical kinetics of fast reactions. A stopped-flow instrument coupled to a circular dichroism spectrometer is often used in the field of protein folding, to observe rapid unfolding and/or refolding of proteins.

Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer - TA Instruments Q5000 (2008)
Applied Research Center - Research only - Dr. Richard Gregory

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method of thermal analysis in which changes in physical and chemical properties of materials are measured as a function of increasing temperature (with constant heating rate), or as a function of time (with constant temperature and/or constant mass loss).

UV/visible Spectrophotometer - BioRad SmartSpec Plus (2)
ALF 412 - Biochemistry Instructional Lab - Dr. Lesley Greene

This spectrophotometer has a working wavelength range of 200-800 nm. Used for routine applications such as: quantitation of DNA, RNA, and oligonucleotides; quantitation of proteins via the Bradford, Lowry, and BCA assay methods; monitoring bacterial culture growth; simple kinetic assays; wavelength scans with peak detection.

UV-Visible Near IR Spectrometer, 175-3300nm - Cary 5000 (2007) ALF 204A - Research Only - Dr. Richard Gregory

The Cary 5000 is a high performance UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer with superb photometric performance in the 175-3300 nm range. Using a PbSmart detector, the Cary 5000 extends its NIR range to 3300 nm making it a powerful tool for materials science research. Controlled by the Cary WinUV software, a modular Windows-based software, makes it easy to perform powerful analysis and control a number of optional accessories. The large sample compartment can be expanded to hold large accessories and integrating spheres for spectral and diffuse reflectance. The LockDown mechanism makes it possible to quickly change and position accessories for reproducible results.

UV-Visible Photodiode Array Spectrometer - Agilent 8453 (2005)
COSMIC - Research only - Dr. Kenneth Mopper

Diode array spectrophotometers are capable of acquiring complete UV/Visible absorbance spectra in as little as 100 msec. The key is that the grating of these instruments is fixed, and rather than moving the grating to acquire spectra, hundreds to thousands of detectors are placed at the exit of the monochromator. The detectors are all integrated on a single silicon chip called a photodiode array. The diodes act as capacitors that discharge in proportion to the incident light flux. The capacitance of each diode is converted to a binary word that is input to a computer.

UV-Visible Spectrometer - Thermo Fisher Evolution 201 (2012) ALF 404 - Instrumental Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper

Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, atoms and molecules undergo electronic transitions. Absorption spectroscopy is complementary to fluorescence spectroscopy, in that fluorescence deals with transitions from the excited state to the ground state, while absorption measures transitions from the ground state to the excited state

Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - Bruker Elemental - Tracer III-SD (2016) ALF 406 - Instrumental Chemistry Instructional Lab/Research - Dr. John Cooper/Dr. Craig Bayse

Handheld X-ray fluorescent (XRF) analyzers have the capability to quantify or qualify nearly any element from magnesium to uranium, depending on specific instrument configurations. Portable XRF spectrometers allow you to take the battery operated analyzer to the sample rather than bringing the sample into the lab.

Research Faculty Instrumentation


  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) - Bruker Optics IFS 125 HR
  • Furnace, high temperature - Thermal Technology (2013)
  • Furnace, horizontal tube - CM Furnaces
  • Laser, DPSS system, Sprout G-8W, 8W TEMoo, 532nm - Lighthouse Photonics - two lasers
  • Ozone generator


  • Protein Purification System - PerSeptive BioSystems (2007)
  • UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, Cary 50 Bio - Varian (2007)
  • Stopped-Flow Fluorescence & CD system - Molecular Kinetics (2007)


  • EA Elemental Analyzer-ESD 100 Mass Spectrometer with In Process Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer - Thermo Finnigan (2006)
    This instrument is designed for combustion of samples to produce CO2, H2O, N2, and SO2. The yields of these gases can be measured by a thermal conductivity detector to quantitatively determine the elemental composition of the sample (C, H, N, S content). The CO2 and N2 can be routed to the In Process mass spectrometer where the ratios of 13C to 12C as well as the ratios of 15N to 14N can be measured.
  • Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (Apex-QE120) - Bruker (2006)
  • Gas Chromatograph-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer - Leco Pegasus II (2006)
    This fast GC-MS is capable of running fast GC because the Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer can sample up to 500 spectra a second and modern deconvolution methods allow it to find clean mass spectra in complex, not to mention crowded, chromatograms. It also has a very high sensitivity and good mass accuracy. This instrument will be fitted with a CDS Analytical pyroprobe-2000 controller and a CDS-A2500 autosampler and tray capable of pyrolyzing organic matter and transferring the volatile products to the Leco GC/MS.
  • Gas Chromatograph-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer - Leco Pegasus III (2005)
    This fast GC-MS is capable of running fast GC because the Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer can sample up to 500 spectra a second and modern deconvolution methods allow it to find clean mass spectra in complex, not to mention crowded, chromatograms. It also has a very high sensitivity and good mass accuracy.
  • Gas Chromatograph-Flame Ionization Detector - HP
    This instrument provides chromatographic separation of components in volatile, organic mixtures. The FID is a non-selective detector, which allows for the detection of nearly all carbon-containing organic compounds. It also has a linear dynamic range that extends over five orders of magnitude.
  • High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph - Shimadzu (2007)
    This instrument is designed for preparative purification or analytical quantification of environmental samples. Three detectors including photo diode array (PDA), fluorescence and evaporative light scattering (ELSD), and one fraction collector are hooked up to the HPLC.
  • MALDI (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization)-Time of Flight Spectrometer - Bruker Daltonics Microflex LRF20 (2006)
    This compact, benchtop instrument easily obtains mass spectra, and its ability to operate in either positive or negative ion mode allows for a wide array of samples to be analyzed. Its AutoExecute mode can analyze up to 96 different samples and store their mass spectra automatically. Also equiped with a reflectron, it provides high mass accuracy and resolution.
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer 400MHz - Bruker Avance II 400 (2008)
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer 400MHz - Bruker Avance III 400 (2008)
  • Peptide Synthesizer - Protein Technology PS3 (2007)
    Can custom synthesize virtually any peptide, incorporating labeled peptides.
  • Total Organic Carbon Analyzer - Shimadzu (2009)
  • Total Organic Carbon Analyzer - O.A. Analytical (2005)


  • Delta Nu RAMAN Spectrometer - SciAps (2013)
  • Epsilon Electrochemical Workstation - BASi (2013)
  • ESR Simulation Software/Linux workstation - Bruker BioSpin (2013)
  • Gas Chromatograph - Shimadzu (2013)
  • Hydrogenation apparatus - Parr Instrument (2013)
  • Microcal Isothermal Calorimeter - GE Healthcare (2013)
  • Stopped-flow Spectrophotometer system - TgK Scientific (2013)
  • UV-Vis Diode Array system - Agilent (2013)


  • 200 Amu analyzer - Stanford Research UGA200/12 (2012)
  • Analyzer, CO2/H2O, closed path - Li-Cor LI1700 (2012)
  • Autoclave/dryer - Yamato SM-510 (2011)
  • Biological Incubator - Percival (2011)
  • Fluorometer, Dual PAM-100 system - Walz-USA (2012)
  • French Press - Glen Mills (2012)
  • Microscope - Olympus BX43F (2011)
  • Oxygen Analyzer - AMI (2012)


  • DNA SpeedVac Concentrator - Fisher/Savant (2014)
  • Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) AKTA pure L1 - GE Healthcare (2013)
  • Freezer, -86oC, upright - Fisher/Thermo (2013)
  • Laser light scattering system (MALS-RI Detector)- Wyatt Technology (2015)
    The MALS-RI device is designed to determine the degree of self-association of molecules. That is, it can detect whether the molecule is monomeric, dimeric, trimeric, or larger. This information is vitally important to understand the function of biological macromolecules. The device uses Multiple Angle Light Scattering to determine self-association independent of molecular shape. This is useful as the oblong shape of some biological molecules makes assessment of self-association state problematic via normal light scattering methods. The RI is refractive index: this part of the unit accurately measures the concentration of the molecule in question. The concentration is required for the MALS analysis. The entire unit is designed to be placed in series with size exclusion chromatography system (such as the Superdex columns which I have purchased utilizing ETF), so that proteins are first separated by size (this may separate monomers from dimers of the same protein for instance) and then the self-association state of each peak eluting from the column is determined separately by the MALS-RI.
  • Spectrophotometer, BioDrop Duo - Biochrom USA (2013)
    A UV-Vis spectrophotometer specifically designed for micro-volume measurements.
  • Spectropolarimeter, Circular Dichroism/Abs - Jasco J-815 CD/Abs system (2013)
    The Jasco Spectropolarimeter can be used for steady-state and kinetic measurement of both Circular Dichroism and UV-Visible Absorbance simultaneously.
  • Thermal Cycler, T100 - Bio-Rad (2014)


  • HPLC, Recycling 0 Shimadzu (2008)
  • HPLC, Spectra - Thermo Electron (2006)


  • Flash Chromatography system, automated - Teledyne 200 (2013)
  • Freeze Dry System - Fisher (2015)
  • Gas Chromatograph - Agilent 7890A (2013)
  • Liquid Chromatograph (Agilent 1260)-Mass Spectrometer system - Agilent 6100 series single quadrupole (2013/2014)
  • Melting Point apparatus - Bibby Scientific SMP40 (2013)
  • Microwave Synthesis system - CEM MARS 6 (2014)
  • Microscope, inverted, zero-drift - Olympus 1X81 (2013)
  • Microscope, Trinocular Brightfield / Fluorescence - Olympus BX60 (purchased 2004 but with a camera/software upgrade in 2015)
  • Polarimeter, dual wavelength automatic - Rudolph Research IV (2013)
  • Rheometer with UV light guide accessory - TA Instruments HR-2 (2013)
  • Synthesis Reaction Station - Carousel (2013)


  • Barocycler sample preparation system - Pressure Biosciences NEP23230 (2010)
  • Freeze dryer, benchtop - VirTis (2005)
  • Gene Pulser Xcell total system - Bio-Rad (2008)
  • Glove box - Labconco Protector 50801 (2006)
  • Imaging system, multi-spectral - Cri Nuance (2008)
  • Imaging system, multi-spectral - Cri Nuance 2 (2009)
  • Laser - Spectra Physics 2040E (1998)
  • Luminescence Spectrometer - Perkin Elmer (1999)
  • Micromanipulator(InjectMan NI 2 eppendorf) - Wilkem Scientific (2007)
  • Microscope, HR confocal, Raman - Horiba Jobin Yvon (2013)
  • Shaker, refrigerated, incubated, floor - VWR/Thermo Max Q 5000 (2010)